To assess the effects of preserved more anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnant on synovial coverage, knee stability, and function after bone patellar–tendon–bone (BPTB) allograft reconstruction through second-look arthroscopy and follow-up study.
From June 2007 to February 2009, 51 patients received single bundle BPTB allograft ACL reconstruction and second arthroscopic examination. The patients were divided into four types according to the types of ACL remnant: type 1, 18 had bridging between the posterior cruciate ligament and the tibia; type 2, 21 had bridging between the intercondylar notch roof and the tibia; type 3, 4 had bridging between the lateral condyle and the tibia; and type 4, 8 subjects had no ACL remnants. Clinical results were evaluated with the KT-1000 maximum displacement test and Lysholm scale at mean 12.3- and 53.5-month follow-up. Second-look synovium coverage was recorded as follows: covering 25% or less, 25% to 50%, 50% to 75%, and more than 75%.
Mean percentage of synovium coverage, Lysholm scale, and KT-1000 side-to-side difference were poorer in types 3 and 4 than the other two types at mean 12.3-month follow-up without statistical differences. The result of the final follow-up was comparable with the first one. Four patients had ruptured grafts and accepted revision surgery. Three of them belonged to types 3 and 4, and one patient with sport trauma belonged to type 2. There were other 11 patients with different types of impingement and partial absorption of grafts.
Although lack of statistical power, follow-up study and second-look arthroscopy showed that preserved type 3 and 4 ACL remnant caused poorer synovium coverage and might lead to earlier failure when using BPTB allograft. Early minor laxity at 12.3-month follow-up seemed to be not progressive at the final follow-up.
Level of Evidence
Level III, case-control study.
Lin Guo, Hao Chen, Jiang-Ming Luo, Liu Yang, Ling-Chuan Gu, De-Jie Fu