Background: Short-term outcomes for patients with large, engaging Hill-Sachs lesions who underwent remplissage have demonstrated good results. However, limited data are available for longer term outcomes.
Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of remplissage and determine the long-term rate of return to specific sports postoperatively.
Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients treated with the remplissage procedure from 2007 to 2013. All underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating large Hill-Sachs lesions by the Rowe criteria and glenoid bone loss <20%. All Hill-Sachs lesions were “off track” by an arthroscopic examination and preoperative imaging. At final follow-up, patients underwent a range of motion evaluation and were administered a detailed outcome survey, which included Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores as well as questions regarding sports, employment, physical activities, and dislocation events.
Results: A total of 50 patients (51 shoulders) were included in the study. The average patient age at surgery was 29.8 years (range, 15.0-72.4 years), and the average follow-up time was 60.7 months (range, 25.5-97.6 months); 20.0% of patients underwent previous surgery on their shoulder. The average postoperative WOSI score was 79.5%, and the average ASES score was 89.3. Six shoulders had dislocation events (11.8%) postoperatively: 3 were traumatic, and 3 were atraumatic. Increased preoperative dislocations led to a greater risk of a postoperative dislocation (P < .001). There was also a trend toward higher postoperative dislocation rates in patients who underwent revision (P = .062). The average loss of external rotation was 5.26° (P = .13). The rate of return to ≥1 sports was 95.5% of patients at an average of 7.0 months postoperatively; 81.0% returned to their previous intensity and level of sport. Of patients who played a throwing sport, 65.5% (n = 19) stated that they had problems throwing, and 58.6% (n = 17) felt that they could not normally wind up throwing a ball. Direct rates of return to overhead sports were volleyball, 100%; basketball, 69%; baseball, 50%; and football, 50%.
Conclusion: The redislocation rate after remplissage was 11.8% at an average of 5 years, with 95.5% of patients returning to full sports at an average of 7 months. For throwing sports, 65.5% of patients complained of decreased range of motion during throwing. The results should be considered preoperatively in candidates for remplissage who are engaged in throwing sports.
Grant H Garcia, Hao-Hua Wu, Joseph N Liu, G Russell Huffman, John D Kelly